American and European psychology in this chapter are considered together to show different attempts to create a scientific psychology on the background of disputes about what is science in general. In the English-speaking world, many European works discussed here were either unknown or ignored. And there, where they were known, they knew only partially, as in the case with the work of Gestalt psychologists in perception and awareness of them in the United States. Concerns about American psychologists of science, defined as the application of strict objective methods in the monitoring of physical variables, led to the fact that most continental European works were not even considered as scientific. As for the Soviet psychologists, most of them in the described period were considered followers of Pavlov, then they are out of the political isolation knew little about alternative approaches in the West. But this isolation has been a social phenomenon, the result of the development of psychology in the historically different contexts. Although psychologists have determined the boundaries of what is science and what is not, these boundaries were different, they were created by people and by changing the situation could be challenged. objectivity search led to the rapid development of psychology as a natural science, whether it's Pavlov's physiology or hypothetical-deductive scheme Hull. However, such a view of science as a whole has been criticized in the process of revival of philosophy and human values. Followers Pavlov, behaviourists and phenomenology united ultimate goal - to get the knowledge necessary for the prosperity of mankind in the future. But they went to this goal fundamentally different ways.